When one is interested in cars, there are two essential parameters, the design and the types of engines. The aesthetics are indeed very important, we all want to find our car beautiful and appreciate its look. Then comes the engines, this set of cylinders and piston connected to the crankshaft which transmits the power from the engine to the wheels via the transmission system (Fuel Combustion). This is the heart of the car, it has a bearing on performance, driving pleasure, but also the consumption. In-line, flat or V engine. here is a small presentation of the different architectures of car engines.
- 1 Different Types of Engine
- 2 1- Internal Combustion Engine
- 3 2- External Combustion (E.C) Engine
- 4 3- Kinds of Vehicle Engine According to the Fule of Engine
- 5 4- Classification of Engines according to Desing
- 6 5- According to Cylinders
Different Types of Engine
There are currently 5 types of motors/Engines of cars, which differ in their modes of operation and fuel types:
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1- Internal Combustion Engine
This type of engine almost used in every modern vehicle. I.C Engine has further following types
Types of Internal Combustion (I.C) Engines
There are two types of the internal combustion engine (Where fuel burns inside the engines).
The first type is 2 Strokes Internal Combustion Engines
The second type is 4 Strokes Internal Combustion Engine
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ENGINE OPERATION: 2 STROKES OR 4 STROKES
Four strokes, 2 strokes, 3 strokes. no, we’re not talking about a waltz, we’re talking about a motor. And yes, your engine also works on time.
2 STROKE MOTOR: An Internal Combustion Engine
You will find this type of engines in your motorcycle, on your lawnmower. Moreover, some automobiles also use this type of engine. In this two-stroke cycle, the pistons make only linear movements inside the cylinders. Power of 2 stroke engine of the automobile is relatively lower than 4 strokes.
Video for two Strokes Engine
The gas in your engine will be subjected to four steps. These four steps are done in 1 lap for 2 stroke engines by a piston. While these same steps are done every 2 laps for 4 stroke engines. That is, 2-stroke engines combine two steps per half-turn of the engine.
Four STROKES Internal Combustion (I.C) MOTOR
Used in the automotive and aviation industries, these types of engines of cars run in cycles like the 2-stroke engine. These internal combustion engines (the mixture of air and fuel burns inside the cylinders) or explosion are subjected to 4 steps identical to those of the 2-stroke engine but in a long time with the help of piston. Its power is very high in all types of motors of automobiles.
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These 4 steps are
The intake valve allows a mixture of air and fuel (Used in motor) to enter the cylinder. In the Diesel engines, only air enters the cylinder. The piston goes down into the cylinder. This movement causes a vacuum to draw the air-gasoline (Fuel) mixture into the combustion chamber.
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The intake valve closes and the piston goes up into the cylinder. This action (Piston) compresses the gases (Owing to Fuel) inside the combustion chamber and produces heat.
3- The explosion
The spark plug creates a spark that will ignite the compressed fuel+air and cause an explosion. This action will bring the piston down.
The piston rises again, pushing the burnt gas towards the exhaust valve. This opens up to allow these gases to escape from the automobile.
During this 4-step cycle, the exhaust valve is closed from Step 1 to step 3. The intake valve remains open only at the beginning of the first stage.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN 2 STROKE AND four STROKE ENGINES
It is important to note that the cycle time of the steps is not only the difference between a 2 stroke and a 4 stroke motor. There are others:
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1- In a 2 stroke engine, oil is mixed with gas and subsequently mixed with air. 4-stroke engines work differently, gas and oil never meet: gasoline (Fuel) is mixed with air which is used to move a car.
2- The piston in a 2-stroke engine makes a single crankshaft turn while it makes 2 in the 4-stroke engine.
3- The wear level of a 2-stroke engine is higher than that of a 4-stroke engine.
4- The 2 stroke engine has very little engine braking.
2- External Combustion (E.C) Engine
In this type, the fuel of the car or any vehicle burns (Process of Ignition) outside of the engines. The heat generated by external combustion gets the automobile moved. It is the cheapest way because we can use cheap fuel in it to generate heat. Owing to heat, steam is produced. And then steam gets the wheels moved. Basically, it is a steam engine and works on steam formulas. External combustion engines are not popular nowadays. However, external motors were used in the past.
3- Kinds of Vehicle Engine According to the Fule of Engine
There are four types of engines if we divide them according to the used fuel in them.
v- Hybrid (Patrol And Electric)
Thermal Engines (Diesel, Petrol, Gas)
As mentioned above, there are two types of spark-ignition engines: gas and Diesel (Type of fuel). Their difference does not come from the process (which is the same), but from the fuel: indeed, for one it is gas as a fuel, and for the other, it is diesel fuel.
Diesel or gas, both fuel emit pollutants such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen monoxides. Except that, in theory, petrol cars produce much more CO2 than diesel engines with a difference of 25 %-even with a filter. And we must not forget that diesel engines have the particularity of reducing diesel fuel consumption. So it’s less harmful to our environment.
But Diesel emits a lot of oxides and benzopyrenes: fine particulates (for more information click here), known carcinogens and suspected of being responsible for allergies, and cardiopulmonary diseases. So Diesel is much more harmful to humans.
The most well-known technology to replace the spark ignition engine is the electric motor which runs through electric power. Invented nearly a hundred years ago, these motors only become effective in our time, because modern methods allow extracting lithium more easily, allowing to make efficient batteries. However, these automobiles are still less practical today because of less power (more expensive (Due to electricity instead of Liquid Fuel) and less durable than those with a thermal engine).
Environmentalists like Madame DUFLOT recommend the use of these cars. Nevertheless, it is quite understandable to opt for a thermal motor vehicle since it is still better suited for everyday use and costs much less. It is probably best to wait for the evolution and democratization of electric motors or to consider the purchase of a hybrid vehicle although it is necessary to put the price.
In the case of an electric vehicle, liquid fuel and piston are no longer used. But energy stored in batteries located inside the automobile is used.
In fact, these types of motors have many advantages, no emissions of polluting or greenhouse gases, cheaper energy, high efficiency owing to the used power(80 % compared to 30% for a conventional thermal engine), thus less waste of mechanical energy, economy at a standstill (red lights, traffic jams), energy recovery at braking (the motor can work in “reverse” and produce during decelerations an electric current that recharges the batteries). It is only possible because electricity is used in this engine. On the other hand, owing to liquid fuel, our planet has been facing dangerous challenges like global warming.
Unfortunately, the disadvantages of this motor remain considerable today : the range of the batteries is extremely low (about 200km) for a maximum speed which is also insufficient (130km/h maximum), the weight of the onboard batteries is several hundred kilograms and the energy storage capacity of a current/I vehicle is a hundred times less than that of a vehicle with a thermal motor (electricity is not stored (almost).
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Moreover, this attractive solution can hardly be generalized at the national level because power needs are too great.
This kind of automobiles is therefore of limited use because it would seem to fit only in areas such as the city where speed is restricted and travel time.
We believe, however, that the electric car will be used as a transition to an environmentally friendly engine with the same performance as the current thermal engine.
The Hybrid Engine
This type of engine is a compromise between the thermal engine and the electric motor: the hybrid engine.
The principle of the hybrid engine is to couple these two engines in one, so to actuate the wheels, we have two driving forces that are stressed in their optimum operating ranges. The result is a reduction in gasoline consumption and, consequently, in emissions of polluting and greenhouse gases. However, the hybrid car is not an electric car and the battery is not dimensioned for a large range.
It would be a good idea to design a hybrid car with a battery that would run on the same range as the electric car today, in order to combine the qualities of an urban car with those of a road car.
However, despite certain advantages, the hybrid car cannot dispense with gas (or diesel) and therefore does not solve the problems related to global warming and the depletion of fossil reserves.
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Today, we believe that the hybrid car seems the best compromise given the current technology (low-efficiency electric car and expensive gasoline (Fuel)).
The Compressed Air Engine
There is also another very little known engine type, the compressed air motor (or air motor).
The compressed air motor works thanks to the compressed air expansion in the pistons which drives the wheels of cars (same systems as the thermal motor).
The air motor has many advantages. In fact, it offers a high torque for a minimum volume and weight, its maintenance and manufacturing cost is relatively low, the storage of compressed air in cylinders is a priori free of any form of pollution, the tank offers a possibility of recharging more than 10,000 cycles, in theory, infinite : it does not wear out.
However, the compressed air Motor has a very low range and the cylinder must be charged with a compressor.
We, therefore, believe that the compressed air motor will not have a future in the car sector because it is too restrictive with low power but can nevertheless develop in the public transport sector (tramway for example).
There is also the last alternative to the combustion engine: the hydrogen(Fuel) engines.
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In the third part, we will, therefore, try to explain to you how it works and why we think that the hydrogen engine will one day be able to replace the thermal engine.
4- Classification of Engines according to Desing
There are two types of motors according to the design of an Engine.
I- Rotary Engine
II- Reciprocatory Engine
The reciprocatory engine also called the piston engine.
5- According to Cylinders
If we talk about the numbering of cylinders then there are only two kinds of the engine;
i- Single Cylinder Engine
ii- Multi-Cylinder Engine
However, we talk about the arrangement of Cylinders then we will divide the engines into several categories.
The most classic, the Inline Engine
This is probably the layout that we find most often on our automobiles, especially the car’s entry. The reason for this is very simple, the in-line type engine is the least complex and more straight, it requires fewer parts for its layouts, it is cheaper to manufacture than others and it is more economical in terms of maintenance. Its peculiarity is that the piston/combustion chambers have perfectly aligned with each other. And they are mounted perpendicular to the crankshaft. So it’s going to be longer but flatter than a V-engine. Due to its size, the in-line engine is reserved almost exclusively for cars with a maximum of 4 cylinders.
The characteristics of the V Type engine
Even when one is not very interested in the automobile, one has already heard the expression “V6 engine” of different models of cars. The letter refers to The Shape of the main engine, with two sets of pistons that form a V and the number to the number of pistons. Therefore this type of engine always has an even number of cylinders and these pistons place in the engine in V shape. Compared to the in-line engine, it is shorter, wider and offers a more compact shape that some manufacturers prefer to work on the center of gravity of the car. It is, however, a little more complex to manufacture and are found on high-end vehicles. It also incurs additional costs due to the fact that a V type engine requires two exhaust lines starting from the engine block.
The VR engine, A Variation of the V Engine.
The letter R adjacent to the V signifies that the cylinder angle of an engine has been changed to V in order to reduce its dimensions. Also by bringing the pistons closer together, it is possible to use only one cylinder head per set of pistons. The most recent type is the Golf VR6, which housed a VR6 engine in a transverse position.
The W Engine, a kind of Double V Engine
These are powerful engines for high-performance cars. The W engine is, in fact, a Double V engine. as far as space is concerned, as you can imagine, there is no question like how to place a V12 in a small car.
The Flat Engine.
Have you ever heard of a boxer engine? It is, in fact, a flat or straight engine with horizontal cylinders. It’s kind of like we took a V-engine and put it flatly. This straight configuration has the advantage of offering an excellent balance due to flat movements that generate fewer imbalances. It is no longer necessary to lest the crankshaft. Another advantage is that Flat engines are positioned lower and increase handling and handling. They are much wider and require a specific design. And we must not forget to point out that their more complex design makes them more expensive and more difficult to maintain.
What about the performance of all this?
If the available space under the hood is an important parameter in the choice of an engine for the manufacturer, especially for small cars, one cannot say that one architecture is better than another, all the circuits of the world have seen 4, 5, 6, 8 or 12 cylinders at very high speeds. It’s a bit like brands, there are Mercedes or Toyota enthusiasts and there are motorists who swear by the V6 or the Flat6
If you want to buy a vehicle or simply check the condition of your engine here are some tips to remember :
1- Check the oil gauge! An elevated level is harmful to your engine.
2- Check the rust on the expansion vase.
3- Check the cylinder head gasket, if it is defective you risk engine failure!
To avoid using your engine too quickly, avoid driving at low rpm too often. However, don’t try to shift your gears too fast ! Ideally, you should allow your engine time to warm up while driving slowly for a good ten minutes before you start to press the engine hard with sudden accelerations. Finally, be sure to respect your vehicle’s maintenance schedule by using quality products (especially for oil).
I Hope, you have understood the main types of engine of automobiles. If you have any questions in your mind please ask in the comment section about cars engines. Thank you.