The engine is one of the essential elements of an automobile because it allows it to propel to the wheels the movement created as a result of ignition of the fuel. If all users know what an engine looks like, not the elements that compose it. In this article, I will tell you about a long list of engine components and functions. Knowing the operation of an engine and its different parts can be crucial for candidates who want to get their road code.
- 1 What is an engine?
- 1.1 List of Engine Components and Functions
- 1.1.1 1- The air filter
- 1.1.2 2- The valve spring
- 1.1.3 3- The igniter
- 1.1.4 4- The alternator
- 1.1.5 5- The ventilation belt
- 1.1.6 6- The water pump
- 1.1.7 7- The pulley
- 1.1.8 8- The Radiator Hose
- 1.1.9 9- The combustion chambers
- 1.1.10 10- Drain plug
- 1.1.11 11- The oil gauge
- 1.1.12 12- The gas pump
- 1.1.13 13- Intake manifold
- 1.1.14 14- The candles
- 1.1.15 15- The exhaust manifold
- 1.1.16 16- The steering wheel
- 1.1.17 17- The engine block
- 1.1.18 18- The exhaust pipe
- 1.1 List of Engine Components and Functions
What is an engine?
An engine is a mechanical element specific to motorized devices that allow transforming energy created from the combustion of fuel into a perceptible mechanical movement. The main types of engines that can be found on automobiles are the so-called “combustion” and “explosion” engines. However, there are other types of engines that can fit on an automobile.
Read More About: How a Car Engine Works step by step
List of Engine Components and Functions
An engine is a complex machine have a multitude of components, each having a different shape and function. Among the elements that make up an engine running on petrol, it is possible to enlist the components and their functions. I hope this list of 18 engine parts will help you to solve several problems related to your automobiles.
1- The air filter
I place it at first position in the list of engine components. A vehicle uses thousands of liters of air that mix with fuel to power its internal combustion engine. It is essential that air and fuel are free of any impurities, be it dust, pollution or other dirt. If the fuel filters several times, at the refinery and before its injection into the cylinders, hence the need to have a very efficient engine air filter.
When this filter is clean, the energy efficiency of the vehicle is optimal, as the air/fuel mixture is ideal. When the filter is dirty, some of the fuel cannot burn itself. So, the energy efficiency decreases, the engine, and the exhaust system become clogged.
The change is progressive and imperceptible to the driver until an anomaly indicator lights up in the dashboard. The replacement of the engine air filter is a simple and inexpensive procedureThe good news is that a new air filter will restore energy to the engine and allow the vehicle to travel several more kilometers at each full.
2- The valve spring
An engine has at least two valves per cylinder. In each pair of valves, one is designed for air intake in the combustion chamber and the other is used for the evacuation of the burnt gases.
The most efficient engines have at least four cylinders, and up to sixteen cylinders can be fitted for a sports car engine.
The valves are driven by the camshaft. Valves allow the opening of the cylinders which close with a spring. At the opening, they are animated by a hydraulic pusher that moves over the camshaft lobe. Therefore, the latter performs rotational movements with the crankshaft. Camshaft and crankshaft are both driven by the movement of the piston. Hence, it allows the synchronization of the piston’s actions with those of the valve.
3- The igniter
Useful on petrol engines, ignition ignites the fuel/oxidizer mixture in the combustion chamber. Because if the diesel engines do not need it because of the self-ignition by pressure/heat, the gasoline needs to trigger the combustion through candles (ignition, therefore). Moreover, with the presence of several candles (as far as there are cylinders), the system must also know which one it must feed in juice. It must also be taken into account that the spark must be produced at a precise moment in each cylinder, depending on the position of the piston and the current engine speed. A little too early or a little too late and it’s not going anymore!
Read More About: Troubleshooting Car Starting Problems
4- The alternator
The alternator operates on a physical principle used for a very long time (but only since 1960 on cars). A copper coil is wrapped around a magnet. When the engine is running, it rotates this spool, through the alternator belt, and produces an electric current. When a vehicle is at the engine stop, the battery should give enough power to its electrical equipment which must remain energized (alarm, clock, central locking…). On the other hand, when the car rolls, the electrical energy required by the engine and the alternator supplies its accessories. This essential part of the engine also recharges the battery.
If you want to learn how a car engine works please click on Engine Working
5- The ventilation belt
It is considered most essential for an engine therefore, I am placing it at 5th position in the list of engine components due to its functionality. The fan belt is a flexible and elastic synthetic strip connecting the different parts of the motor.
The inner surface of this belt generating the traction action is serrated, which allows it to secure itself to the different parts without slipping. The ventilation belt is used to transfer the rotational energy from one location to another within the engine. Its operation is very similar to that of the distribution belt: The only notable difference is that it connects other elements.
The name “fan belt” comes from the fact that this element is connected to the cooling motor. If you hear a belt squeak every time you start your vehicle, it is likely that there is a problem with your fan belt.
Being a fine element, the fan belt can squeak by coming into contact with the mechanical shafts of the motor. This is a clear clue telling you that you need to replace your fan belt. You can do this by yourself, but it takes you a few hours and could be tedious depending on the brand and model of your vehicle.
A quality fan belt will be designed to limit the friction generated within your car’s engine. The most recent belts have a serrated part and then curved for this reason.
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Reducing the friction at the engine level will improve the performance of the motor and also allow the belt to last longer; It will be replaced less regularly. If you think your fan belt is damaged or worn, have it checked by a professional. You will know more about its condition and know if it is necessary to change it immediately.
6- The water pump
The water pump is a key component of the cooling system. It circulates the coolant in the circuit to cool the engine.
The water pump operates either through the distribution belt or the accessory belt (depending on the vehicle equipment level).
7- The pulley
The damper pulley (damper pulley in French), is a drive pulley placed on the motor after and in the pinion axis of the motor crankshaft distribution.
It consists of:
1- of a hub, attached to the crankshaft by a bore, a key (often), and a nut or fixing screw.
2- of a peripheral part, forming the pulley footprint (mostly, the fingerprints are striated from 3 to 7 ply longitudinally) and receiving the accessory belt, asynchronous belt allowing the motor drive of different bodies Annexes (alternator, water pump, steering pump, air conditioning compressor, etc.)
3- plastic polymer ring separates and connects these two parts.
It facilitates the transmission
The damper pulley provides two complementary functions: as a standard pulley, it ensures the transmission of the motor’s rotating movement through the accessory belt.
It also smoothes the transmission blows: the thermal engine providing cyclic forces and the driven organs opposing equally irregular strengths (e.g. a variable resistance of the alternator according to the electrical intensity delivered), the hub and the pulley part attenuate this phenomenon by shifting into rotation; It is the elastic intermediate part that ensures this movement, avoiding excessive effort and beating of the belt.
Hope so you are enjoying the reading of the long list of engine components and functions.
8- The Radiator Hose
The 8th component in the list of engine parts is Radiator Hose. Today, the engine compartments are narrower and the radiator hoses exist in all kinds of shapes and sizes to meet specific applications in very small spaces. These hoses route the coolant to many types of equipment under the hood and consist of three parts: the tube, the reinforcement, and the coating.
Although the design of the hoses has remained relatively unchanged over the years, the materials that makeup they have been considerably improved. The hoses now have a higher lifespan. The binding environment, however, eventually alters them and, over time, even the best flexible ones wear out and need to be replaced.
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9- The combustion chambers
It is in this Chamber that the combustion of the air-fuel mixture takes place. Because contrary to what its name suggests, the operation of the “engine with explosions” owes nothing to detonation, but too gradual combustion although extremely fast. An engine has one or more combustion chambers. For cars, there are several (the minimum is two on the twin-cylinder engine) while a moped will only have one. Basically, it depends on the number of cylinders.
The combustion chamber is often machined directly into the cylinder head, sometimes it is reported (hafted or fixed). It can accommodate in its upper part (see bottom image) a candle (not on diesel), valves (at least two per cylinder, one to accommodate the oxidizer, an injector. Due to its function, the combustion chamber suffers from intense mechanical stresses (pressure, temperature) and the corrosive action of the burnt gases. Its shape and volume are particularly studied (“aerodynamic” crucial internal) to promote the best possible combustion at all regimes. There are also rooms with varying volume.
10- Drain plug
The drain plug, a piece the size of a thimble, can have serious consequences in the event of leakage or deterioration that can go to the casing of the engine! It is therefore essential to know the different types and how to install and replace it. So, always be careful about Drain Plugs
11- The oil gauge
This is the most important part of the list of engine components. The oil dipstick checks the oil level of your engine. How do you go about this audit? Let’s make a point together.
I hope that this list of engine components is not making your bore. Is it?
Usefulness of the oil gauge
The motor of a vehicle works with oil, which is vital for its operation: it allows to lubricate the mechanical organs.
In the lower casing of the motor is the oil reserve. To check the level of this reserve, a tube communicating with the top of the engine guides the oil gauge, which is a metal rod dipping in its lower part in the oil.
This lower part is marked by 2 markers:
A minimum oil level mark
A maximum oil level mark.
12- The gas pump
A car engine burns a mixture of air and gasoline. The gasoline is pumped along a pipe of the tank. Then it mixes with the air in the carburetor, from where the engine sucks the mixture.
In the fuel injection system, used on some engines, gasoline and air are mixed into the intake manifold.
The petrol fuel pump pulls out of the tank by a pipe to the carburetor.
13- Intake manifold
The intake manifold is also named dispatcher. It is part of the airline of a thermal engine, i.e. a combustion engine.
The role of the intake manifold is to distribute the air allowed into the engine on all the cylinders to achieve a total fuel combustion in each of them. Air can come directly from outside the vehicle, with or without filtering. It can mix with cooled exhaust gas through an EGR valve (exhaust gas recirculating device or exhaust gas recirculation in English).
The inlet manifold is located between the air filter and the engine cylinder head.
Note that there is a vacuum (natural suction of the air) in a petrol engine manifold. However, the Diesel engine does not have.
14- The candles
For a petrol engine to operate properly, the spark plug must generate a powerful spark.
If the ignition is not optimum, the combustion of the air/fuel mixture may be incomplete. The unburned mixture is then evacuated into the exhaust system, can foul it and emit gases harmful to the environment.
A spark plug ignites the 500 air/fuel mixture at 3500 times per minute. Its role is paramount in terms of technology and environment.
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15- The exhaust manifold
The function of this part is to collect the flue gases coming out of the valves and the exhaust ducts in the cylinder head in front of each cylinder. It, therefore, has as many pipes as there are cylinders, and brings them together in one or two outlets.
On some economical cars, there is only one tubing for two cylinders. The manifold is almost always made of cast iron, and sometimes in metal tubes welded on a base.
The assembly is bolted to the breach; A gasket ensures sealing. The manifold outlet can be connected to the rest by a special shank.
It is usually a pipe that goes to the primary pot. On-line six-and eight-cylinder engines sometimes have two independent exhaust manifolds.
On the V-motors, there are almost always two separate manifolds, located on either side of the cylinder head; The admission is then made by a common manifold placed between the cylinder heads
16- The steering wheel
An essential element that makes the connection between the engine and the clutch. In addition, the flywheel turns into more modern models since the end of the years 90, which allows reducing the noise and vibration of the engines considerably. The flywheel is the main element that connects the motor and the clutch. Recent flywheel models are the twin-mass flywheel models that reduce vibration and engine noise. This type of flywheel is generally very common on models of diesel-powered cars that are very noisy at the base. However, although they are very efficient in terms of sound insulation, they are more fragile than the old models and are the cause of many failures. Thus, if the driving wheel of a vehicle is defective, it will not only need to change it but also change the clutch
17- The engine block
Due to the second last position in the list of engine components, don’t take it lightly. The cylinder block also called the engine block, constitutes the piston-engine frame, the inner part of which has machined to form the cylinders or the housings of shirts, if it is a motor with a reported shirt. The cooling water circulates freely inside the motor housing. The upper part of the block erects to form the seal plane for the cylinder head. And it comes to comb the rollers.
The cylinder block or engine block performs different functions. It must withstand the pressure of the gases of the combustion which tend to dilate and push on the breach. Moreover, It must guide the piston, hence the need to reduce friction and increase the resistance to wear. It must contain the coolant while resisting corrosion.
18- The exhaust pipe
Here is the last one of the list of engine components. In principle, an explosion engine generates burnt gases (more or less completely). And it should evacuate from the combustion chamber (inside the cylinder) to allow its filling by an optimum quantity of fuel mixture to allow the Cycle Renewal: Admission-compression-ignition-trigger-exhaust. This is the role of the various components of the exhaust system: manifold, Pipe (x), pot (s).
It is thanks to these different elements, as well as to others, that the engine is able to transform energy into motion.
I hope all the above-mentioned list of engine components and functions is enough to understand. However, if I missed any part please mention it in the comment section.